Nusa Penida: historical research


This website is an open source view on the history of the island group of Nusa Penida (Nusa Gede, Nusa Ceningan & Nusa Lembongan), sibling to mainland Bali, Indonesia.

The Bali Starling/Myna (Leucopsar rothschildi) - Bali's fabled mascot, almost at the brink of extinction - named after Lionel Walter Rothschild (1868-1937), found a new home on Nusa Penida in 2006. The discovery of this cheerful and sympathetic bird's new habitat on Nusa Penida was the start of research into its history in 2007.

This website is dedicated to Balinese historian Njoman Djelada, alias G(h)ora Sirikan (1906-1970), a hard-working writer and historian and a charismatic personality, whose talents were not fully appreciated during his lifetime. The author greatly enjoys his 'Sedjarah Bali' (History of Bali) and thinks it deserves the attention of an international audience.

Celebrating its 15th anniversary in 2022, author G.Dijkman welcomes input, feedback and critial notes. See Facebook page Nusa Penida history. Enjoy!

Nusa Penida (Reeuwijk 2013)

Alexander Reeuwijk takes us to Nusa Penida in a short Dutch article published in ‘Azië Magazine' in 2013 (see source below). He finds a warm welcome with nature conservationists FNPF, discusses the Bali Starling and Awig-awig regulations protecting the bird, and relishes the relaxed atmosphere on the island. He is aware that the future may not always hold such tranquility as business from elsewhere is taking a foothold on Nusa Penida too.

Selayang Pandang Nusa Penida (Suada, 2005)

Thanks to advisor Made ‘Bombom’ Widana in Denpasar, this book FINALLY surfaced. Below text takes you through the relevant parts of Suada’s book, which ‘at a flying glance’ presents a plea for improving amenities on the neglected island group of Nusa Penida. Suada talks about its history, culture and political situation around 2001, and takes a close look at the potential for tourism and what room there is for development benefiting its inhabitants. Subheadings and square brackets by G.Dijkman. THIS ARTICLE IS UNDER REVISION.

Schetsen van het eiland Bali (Van Eck, 1878)

Below article takes you through relevant parts of a series of articles 'Schetsen van het eiland Bali' (Sketches of the Island of Bali) by R. van Eck, published in Tijdschrift voor Nederland's Indië from 1878 onwards, see sources below. These articles may be retrieved from, where original text (with multiple mistakes) is also available. Adaptation for readability and purposes of research: modern grammar and spelling for Balinese, Dutch and Indonesian where applicable; translations, subheadings & square brackets by G.Dijkman. THIS ARTICLE IS UNDER REVISION.

Babad Dalem A-II (Tjatera, 1986)

Below follows Babad Dalem A, part II. dealing with Gelgel's genealogical history starting with Baturenggong's death, by Tjatera (1986), p.30-61, see source below. To enhance readability, parts not pertaining directly to its contents have been omitted. Adaptations: Indonesian modern spelling, Brangbangan/Blangbangan > Blambangan etc. English translations, subheadings & square brackets by G.Dijkman. You will find 'Babad Dalem A, part I' in the previous window.

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