In 2005, Ni Komang Astiti & Dariusman Abdillah published an article on the temples of Nusa Penida in connection to their natural surroundings. For the entire Indonesian article, please click here. Below you'll find the English translation on Meranting Temple by Godi Dijkman, including additional comments in square brackets.
In 2005, Ni Komang Astiti & Dariusman Abdillah published an article on the temples of Nusa Penida in connection to their natural surroundings. For the entire Indonesian article, please click here. Below you'll find the English translation on Mundi Temple by Godi Dijkman, including additional comments in square brackets. All colour photographs by author Godi Dijkman, 2009.
Below article is an impression of the main and most sacred of the three temples, Pura Puser Sa(h)ab, southwest-central Nusa Penida. The author is much indebted to Jero Mangku Pedalang Oka and I Nyoman Jaya Purusa for an interview and a unique chance of discovering the temple's treasures.
Below text deal with Pura Mastulan and its natural environments, written by Ni Komang Ayu Astiti & Dariusman Abdillah (2005). It is a part of an article dealing with 'Natural resources', presented under the rung 'Archaeology' elsewhere in this site. The English translation is proved by Godi Dijkman and the original Indonesian text can be found here.
Image 2. Staircase to Pura Mastulan ornamented with various Naga at the left and right side of the staircase and a number of other statues (new constructions); Image 3. Gate (Pintu Gerbang) to Pura Mastulan; Image 4. Ritual activities in the form of 'upacara' performed by the members of the research team under the guidance of priest (Pemangku) Pura Mastulan, prior to research
In Pura Mastulan, two statues were found, considered the embodiment of Bhatara-Bhatari, made of limestone (batu padas) or sandstone (tufa pasiran). To safeguard these statues, the local population created a special place to store them, called 'pelinggih gedong penyimpanan'. In addition to these two statues, two other stone pedestals (umpak batu) were found. These pedestals are currently used as 'six' stone pillars (umpak bangunan tiang enam; saka enam). This construction serves as a place for main offerings (sesajen pokok) during 'upacara' rituals and these 'umpak' are adorned with embellishments consisting of leaves and 'padma' flowers.
Image 5. Statue Bhatara-Bhatari guarded at 'Pelinggih Gedong Penyimpanan' at Pura Mastulan, Jurangpahit; Image 6. One of the 'umpak batu' used for 'umpak bangunan tiang Enam', found together with the statue representing Bhatara-Bhatari
Surroundings of Pura Mastulan
Pura Mastulan with its surrounding settlements is located on a high plateau or highland. Outside of the temple many there are many large trees and all of them have luxurious foliage. There is one particularly large tree hundreds of years old (as old as the statues), i.e. pohon Buu. The local population holds this tree sacred, and at certain instances worshipping ceremonies are held in its honour. Besides this tree, outside the temple's protecting hedge (pagar), there is a tree called Majegau (Dysoxylum densiflorum; Rosewood), and (parts of it) are used for ceremonies: the fragrant trunk is used for poles to construct the temple; the Acacia tree and Randu tree (possibly Ceiba pentadra, Coprinus macrorrhizus or Gossampinus hepataphylla); are used to produce 'pererai' (masks) etc. Besides these trees, there is plenty of underbrush. Within the temple grounds, flowers are grown for use in certain ceremonies. Apart from these flowers, all other plants in the surroundings of the temple can only be used for temple ceremonies. The morphology of the area surrounding the temple is a hilly landscape, its main lithology being limestone. Limestone is used for the construction of the entire temple, with the exception of the two Bhatara-Bhatari statues, which are made of sandstone (tufa pasiran).
Image 31. Morphology of the surroundings of Pura Mastulan, photograph taken to the west side of the entrance staircase; Image 32. Exposure appearance of the limestone lithology, photograph taken to the west side of the village road near Jurangpahit
Image right: Majegau tree (Dysoxylum) (wikipedia)
- Heyne, Karel - De Nuttige Planten van Indonesië, Parts I (p.1-1450) and II (p.1451-1660 & list of scientific names p.I-CCXII), H.Veenman & zonen, Wageningen, 1950
- Rosewood: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysoxylum
- Astiti, Ni Komang Ayu - & Abdillah, Dariusman - Pemanfaatan Sumber Daya Alam untuk Mendukung Kegiatan Religi dari Manusia Prasejarah di Pulau Nusa Penida, Kabupaten Klungkung, Provinsi Bali, Laporan Penelitian Subbid. Laboratorium Artefak dan Ekofak, Bidang Arkeologi Sejarah dan Arkeometri; Jakarta 2005, 43pp.
Photographic impression of Pura Goa Betel, Ceningan. Given Karl Helbig's observations that the smallest of the Nusa Penida islands Ceningan was still uninhabited by 1940, it seems strange that below article should appear in the category 'Archaeology'. However, perhaps this positioning is understandable as the (most important) temples of Nusa Penida, including those on Lembongan and Ceningan, have been included in this section.