In August 2005, Ni Made Suwendri completed her S2 Magister thesis at Udayana University (Denpasar, Bali) entitled 'Usaha rumput laut dan dampaknya terhadap pelestarian lingkungan di Kecamatan Nusa Penida: Suatu kajian budaya', loosely translated as 'Seaweed Business and its impact on environmental conservation in Nusa Penida: A cultural study'. (available in searchable pdf)
During research undertaken between November 2005 and November 2006, I G.A. Sugi Wahyuni, N.M. Susun Parwanayoni & Joko Wiryatno from the Kelompok Studi Ekowisata, Jurusan Biologi (FMIPA) at Universitas Udayana Denpasar, in an article entitled: 'Jenis Tumbuhan dan Kondisi Hutan Mangrove di Nusa Lembongan dan Nusa Ceningan, Kecamatan Nusa Penida, Kabupaten Klungkung' concluded that the mangrove area at Nusa Lembongan and Ceningan (Nusa Penida, Bali) covered 212 ha, besides an area of mangrove forest outside this area of about 15 ha.
Late 1993, biologist Tony Whitten collected some unusual crabs in two adjacent caves on the limestone karst island of Nusa Penida, which nestles to the Southeast of Bali, Indonesia. These and some specimens collected soon after were described as a new species, namely Sesarmoides emdi, by Peter Ng and Tony Whitten. Peter Ng later realized that the collection represented two, not one, species and he named the second species Sesarmoides balicus in 2002. Five years later the genus name for these two species changed to Karstama.
In a 1988-1993 survey of eastern Indonesia, R.A. How and D.J. Kitchener make mention of a new finding: the snake Dendrelaphis inornatus in Nusa Penida.
In 'The Herpetofauna of Nusa Penida, Indonesia', various expert authors report their findings on the amphibians and reptiles on Nusa Penida, published in 2012, revised and published online in 2014, by Sami Asad (1), J. Lindley McKay (2,4) and Agus Pradana Putra (3), refer to sources below. Additional observations by Godi Dijkman in square brackets.