Phoneme occurrence & distribution (Madia, 1984)

Phoneme occurrence & distribution in Balinese used in Nusa Penida

Below table gives the occurrence and positioning (distribution) of phonemes, vocals [a, e, ɛ, E, aɛ, ə, i, I, u, O, ɔ, o, aɔ, u, U] and consonants [b, c, d, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, ñ, ŋ, p, r, s, t, w] and their Indonesian and English equivalents for the 13 observation points (OP).

Dialects (Adhiti, 1984)

Below article is a summarised rendering of Adithi's thesis 'Variasi kosa kata bahasa Bali di Nusa Penida: sebuah kajian geografi dialek' published in 1984 (142pp.), a year after she finished her field work in Nusa Penida in 1983.

Language (Giambelli, 1995)

The language spoken in Nusa Penida is basically Balinese, but incorporates some peculiar local variations. A 1922 note by Nengah Patra (in Haga 1924a:460-2) plus two articles at the beginning of the 1930's, by Grendeng (1930) and Tantra (1933) had already mentioned a small list of words that were used in Nusa Penida and found to be different from usage in Bali.

Panida (Dijkman, 2013)

panida aksarabalipe ni da aksaraPanida means 'lime' or 'limestone'. The origins of the name Panida, or Penida - a phonetic alteration which would seem to be caused by the additional diacritical sign 'pepet' assigned on top of the first 'a' in the original Aksara Bali script, perhaps arbitrarily (?) - has been historically interpreted in a number of ways.

Dialect variation groups (Adhiti, 1984)

Variation groups by place (Variation within the Item Groups)

Adithi subdivides each variation group (variasi kelompok) into several items (butir). The first variation group 'body parts', for instance, contains 13 items or words called 'butir kata' or 'given words' (berian).

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